From the *WHO Collaborating Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance in Foodborne Pathogens and EU Community Reference Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen V, Denmark; daggerCenters for Disease Control and Prevention, WHO Collaborating Centre for Surveillance, Epidemiology and Control of Salmonella and other Foodborne Diseases, Atlanta, GA; double daggerInstitute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Graz, Austria, section signStatens Serum Institute, SSI, Copenhagen, Denmark; paragraph signNational University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland; parallelCentral Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR, Lelystad, The Netherlands; **Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; and daggerdaggerDepartment of Gastrointestinal, Emerging and Zoonotic Infections, Centre for Infections, London, United Kingdom.
BACKGROUND:: Multidrug-resistant Salmonella serovar Concord infections have been reported from children adopted from Ethiopia. We interviewed patients, characterized the isolates, and gathered information about adoptions from Ethiopia to assess public health implications. METHODS:: Information about Salmonella Concord cases and adoptions were provided from Austria, Denmark, England (and Wales), Ireland, the Netherlands and the United States. Patients from Denmark and the United States were interviewed to determine the orphanages of origin; orphanages in Ethiopia were visited. Isolates were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and antimicrobial susceptibility; specific antimicrobial resistance genes were characterized. RESULTS:: Salmonella Concord was isolated from 78 persons from 2003 to 2007. Adoption status was known for 44 patients 2 indistinguishable isolates; one isolate from an Ethiopia adoptee. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed on 43 isolates; 81% were multidrug-resistant (>/=3 agents). Multidrug-resistant isolates were from Ethiopian adoptees and were resistant to third and fourth generation cephalosporins and 14% had decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. CONCLUSIONS:: Improved hygiene and sanitation and more appropriate use of antimicrobial agents are needed in orphanages in Ethiopia. Culturing of stool specimens of children adopted from Ethiopia and appropriate hygiene may prevent further disease transmission.