BACKGROUND: Brucellosis constitutes a public health problem in Turkey. In endemic Brucella melitensis areas such as Turkey, children represent 20-25% of cases. METHODS: Hospital records of 90 children with brucellosis admitted during a 9 year period, 1997-2006, were evaluated retrospectively. RESULTS: Of 90 patients, 27 (30%) were female and 63 (70%) were male (P or=1/160 in 82 patients (91.1%). The joint symptoms rapidly responded to the treatment and the majority of the patients had significant improvement. The duration of treatment was 6 weeks in 81 patients (90%). Six patients experienced relapse. Four patients presented with complications that included neurobrucellosis, discitis and sclerosis of the hip joint. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of childhood brucellosis with co-trimoxazole + rifampicin or doxycycline + rifampicin, according to patient age, is effective and has low relapse rates. Complications and relapse were successfully treated with triple-drug regimens with a low sequelae rate.