OBJECTIVES: To report on the relationships between cultural identity and stress, coping, and psychological well-being in Yup'ik communities. STUDY DESIGN: A quantitative self-administered questionnaire. METHODS: A health and wellness survey was completed by a total of 488 Yup'ik participants (284 women and 204 men) from 6 rural villages in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta region. Respondents were fairly equally distributed across an age range of 14 to 94 (mean +/- SD = 38.50 +/- 17.18). RESULTS: Participants who reported living more of a Kass'aq way of life (greater acculturation) reported experiencing greater psychosocial stress, less happiness, and greater use of drugs and alcohol to cope with stress. Participants who reported identifying more with a traditional Yup'ik way of life reported greater happiness, more frequent use of religion and spirituality to cope with stress, and less frequent use of drugs and alcohol to cope with stress. CONCLUSIONS: In conjunction with previous research, the data strongly indicates that in general, Yup'ik people in the Y-K Delta tend to associate stress and negative health outcomes with the process of acculturation, and health and healing with the process of enculturation. Research that focuses on documenting the intrinsic strengths of indigenous worldviews may contribute to positive transformations in community health.