During the latter half of the nineteenth century, the Sundsvall area of Sweden underwent a dramatic economic transformation powered by the exceptional growth of the sawmill industry. Industrialization certainly had a devastating consequences for the health of sawmill employees and their families but also contributed to a gradual reduction in mortality rates among many farmers and cotters. This was particularly true among those who could benefit from the increased market for their produce found in the town and near the sawmills. Much of this study examines the consequences of industrial growth on the population's health. Nonetheless, the marked increase in tuberculosis mortality among women toward the end of the century illuminates the need to consider the social and cultural implications of industrialization rather than simply its economic characteristics when examining mortality patterns.