Between 1998 and 1999, the Swedish Institute for Health Services Development (Spri) evaluated three applications in which specialist competence was being accessed via telemedicine. The results indicated that these kinds of application can be cost-effective in an organization well adapted to new technology and that telemedicine can improve continuity of care for patients. However, the new technology was seldom supported by the old organization and better education and technical support are needed. In a study called 'Incentives and Implementation', the Federation of Swedish County Councils interviewed people in Swedish health-care with a lot of experience of telemedicine. The interviewees agreed that telemedicine was likely to affect the whole structure of health-care. Peripheral competence was expected to increase and referral patterns to change, as well as the functions of the personnel and the hospitals. New working conditions and methods of work were expected to be made possible by telemedicine and health-care was expected to become more process oriented, partly because patients are likely to be more demanding and better informed. To be able to utilize this potential, health-care managers will have to show more interest in and commitment to telemedicine. Old organizational patterns must be called into question and be developed along with information technology and telemedicine. It is also important to give priority to training in telemedicine for physicians and nurses.