The field results of a vaccination programme against Vibrio vulnificus serovar E (biotype 2) in a Spanish eel farm are reported. A total of 9.5 million glass eels were vaccinated from January 1998 to March 2000 by prolonged immersion followed by 2 subsequent reimmunisations after 12 to 14 and 24 to 28 d, respectively. The acquired protection and the immune response against serovar E were estimated over a period of 6 mo after vaccination. A similar vaccination schedule was conducted with elvers in a Danish eel farm. In this case, the acquired protection and the immune response against serovar E and the new eel-pathogenic serovars, recently described in Denmark, were evaluated over a short term. The overall results show that the vaccine against V. vulnificus serovar E induces a satisfactory protective immunity during the main growth period of eels (around 6 mo) with a relative percentage survival of 62 to 86% and protects them against the new eel-pathogenic serovars. Vaccination of eels by immersion seems to be the best strategy to prevent diseases caused by V. vulnificus.