The effects of two different prevention programmes on: (1) reported neck, shoulder and back pain, (2) perceived physical exertion at work and perceived work-related psychosocial factors, were evaluated by questionnaires after 12 and 18 months. Female nursing aides and assistant nurses (n = 282) working in the home-care services, were randomly assigned to one of three groups for: (1) individually designed physical training programme, (2) work-place stress management, (3) control group. Results revealed no significant differences between the three groups. However, improvements in low back pain were registered within both intervention groups for up to 18 months. Perceived physical exertion at work was reduced in the physical training group. Improvements in neck and shoulder pain did not differ within the three groups. Dissatisfaction with work-related, psychosocial factors was generally increased in all groups. As the aetiology of neck, shoulder and back disorders is multifactorial, a combination of the two intervention programmes might be preferable and should be further studied.