Cancer has become a significant health problem in American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) communities. Despite the precipitous rise in cancer rates, limited data are available concerning cancer control services operative in these communities. To address this issue, a cross-sectional survey of all federally recognized tribes was undertaken to ascertain the breadth of cancer control activities offered and Tribal Health Directors perceptions of and priorities ascribed to cancer. This article presents responses given by AN Health Directors juxtaposed to those proffered by AI Health Directors. Nearly three-quarters (71%) of respondents perceived cancer rates to be increasing. Cancer was found to rank third, fifth among AI Health Directors, among seven health conditions when Directors were asked to rank their Tribe's commitment to confronting each one. Awareness of cancer as a public health concern coupled with competing health problems relegates cancer control activities to a lower priority. Findings underscore the need to elevate the issue of cancer in Indian Country as well as to educate investigators to become more sensitive and responsive to other Tribal health issues.