MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression, and their expression is associated with many physiological conditions. Here, we investigated potential associations between expression levels of miRNAs in human placenta and the onset of spontaneous term birth. Using RNA sequencing, we identified 54 miRNAs differentially expressed during spontaneous term labor compared to elective term births. Expression levels of 23 miRNAs were upregulated, whereas 31 were downregulated at least 1.5-fold. The upregulated miRNA miR-371a-5p putatively targets CPPED1, expression of which decreases during spontaneous birth. We used a luciferase reporter-based assay to test whether a miR-371a-5p mimic affected translation when it bound to the 3' untranslated region of CPPED1. In this setting, the miR-371a-5p mimic resulted in lower luciferase activity, which suggests that miR-371a-5p regulates levels of CPPED1. In conclusion, inversely correlated levels of miR-371a-5p and CPPED1 suggest a role for both in spontaneous delivery.