It is believed that the structure and properties of parts fabricated by additive (i.e., non-stationary) manufacturing are slightly worse compared to hot pressing. To further proceed with improving the quality of Fused Deposition Modeling 3D-printed parts, the 'UHMWPE + 17 wt.% HDPE-g-SMA + 12 wt.% PP' composite feedstock fabrication parameters, by the twin-screw extruder compounding and 3D printing (the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process), were optimized using the Taguchi method. The optimization was carried out over the results of mechanical tests. The obtained results were interpreted in terms of (1) the uniformity of mixing of the polymer components upon compounding and (2) the homogeneity of the structure formed by the 3D printing. The values of the main factors (the processing parameters) were determined using the Taguchi method. Their application made it possible to improve the physical, mechanical, and tribological properties of the samples manufactured by the FDM method at the level of neat UHMWPE as well as the UHMWPE-based composites fabricated by compression sintering. A comparative analysis of the structure, as well as the mechanical and tribological properties of the composite obtained by the FDM method, and the hot pressing from 'optimized' feedstock was performed. The 'UHMWPE + 17 wt.% HDPE-g-SMA + 12 wt.% PP' composites fabricated by the optimal compounding and 3D printing parameters can be implemented for the additive manufacturing of complex shape products (including medical implants, transport, mining, and processing industries; in particular, in the Far North).