Arthropods operate in an outrageous diversity of environments. From the deep sea to dense tropical forests, to wide open arctic tundra, they have colonized almost every possible habitat. Within these environments, the presence of light is nearly ubiquitous, varying in intensity, wavelength, and polarization. Light provides critical information about the environment, such as time of day or where food sources may be located. Animals take advantage of this prevalent and informative cue to make behavioral choices. However, the types of choices animals face depend greatly on their environments and needs at any given time. In particular, animals that undergo metamorphosis, with arthropods being the prime example, experience dramatic changes in both behavior and ecology, which in turn may require altering the structure and function of sensory systems such as vision. Amphibiotic organisms maintain aquatic lifestyles as juveniles before transitioning to terrestrial lifestyles as adults. However, light behaves differently in water than in air, resulting in distinct aquatic and terrestrial optical environments. Visual changes in response to these optical differences can occur on multiple levels, from corneal structure down to neural organization. In this review, we summarize examples of alterations in the visual systems of amphibiotic larval and adult insects and malacostracan crustaceans, specifically those attributed to environmental differences between metamorphic phases.