Environmental objects (surface and groundwater, soil, bottom sediments, wastewater) are reservoirs in which large-scale multidirectional exchange of determinants of antibiotic resistance between clinical strains and natural bacteria takes place. The review discusses the results of studies on antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) isolated from environmental objects (water, soil, sewage, permafrost) of the Russian Federation. Despite the relevance of the topic, the number of available publications examining the resistomes of Russian water bodies and soils is small. The most studied environmental objects are surface waters (rivers, lakes), permafrost deposits. Soil resistomes are less studied. Data on ARG and ARB in wastewater are the least covered in publications. In most of the studies, antibiotic resistance of isolated pure bacterial cultures was determined phenotypically. A significant number of publications are devoted to the resistance of natural isolates of Vibrio cholerae, since the lower reaches of the Volga and Don rivers are endemic to cholera. Molecular genetic methods were used in a small number of studies. Geographically, the south of the European part of Russia is the most studied. There are also publications on the distribution of ARG in water bodies of Siberia and the Russian Far East. There are practically no publications on such developed regions of Russia as the center and northwest of the European part of Russia. The territory of the country is very large, anthropogenic and natural factors in its various regions vary significantly; therefore, it seems interesting to combine all available data in one work.