Maternal diet can influence the developing immune system of the offspring. We hypothesized that maternal fibre and gluten intake during pregnancy were associated with the risk of celiac disease in the child. In the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa, n?=?85,898) higher maternal fibre intake (median 29.5 g/day) was associated with a lower risk of celiac disease in the offspring (adjusted relative risk 0.90, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.98 per 10 g/d increase). Gluten intake during pregnancy (median 13.0 g/d) was associated with a higher risk of childhood CD (adjusted relative risk?=?1.21, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.43 per 10 g/d increase). These results were largely unaffected by adjustment for the child's gluten intake at 18 months. In an independent study of 149 mother/child dyads, maternal fibre intake did not predict concentrations of total or sub-types of short-chain fatty acids in repeated infant stool samples, or fecal microbiome diversity in the mother or child. Our results suggest that high fibre and low gluten intake during pregnancy could be protective factors for celiac disease, although the mechanism is unknown.