The present study investigates the potential long-term physiological effects on maturing polar cod (Boreogadus saida), an Arctic key species, after an acute exposure (48?h) to environmentally realistic concentrations of either mechanically dispersed oil (MDO), chemically dispersed oil (CDO) or burned oil residues (BO) (N?=?58-60 per treatment). Following exposure, fish were monitored in a common tank supplied with clean water for a seven-month period coinciding with the period of reproductive development. Females exposed to BO residues were more frequently found in an earlier phase of gonadal maturation compared to unexposed females while no effects of different oil spill response (OSR) actions were seen in the reproductive development of males. Mechanically and chemically dispersed oil induced a transient short-term reduction in growth in the first week post-exposure. Overall, no significant long-term effects of exposure were seen in growth or mortality. Ultimately, this study provides information for the assessment of population consequences of different OSR actions as part of a net environmental benefit analysis.