Analysed in the article are the results of the Ross procedure in patients presenting with dilatation of the ascending portion of the aorta. A combination of aortic valve defects with dilatation of the ascending aorta of more than 45 mm supposes simultaneous prosthetic repair of the aortic valve and ascending aorta. The most common surgical procedure remains the Bentall-DeBono operation whose main disadvantage is associated with implantation of a mechanical prosthesis and the necessity of lifelong anticoagulant therapy. An alternative method is the Ross procedure demonstrating low risk of thromboembolic complications and freedom from anticoagulant therapy. Over the period from 2002 to April 2015, specialists of the Novosibirsk Scientific Research Institute of Circulatory Pathology named after Academician E.N. Meshalkin carried out a total of 162 Ross procedures in patients presenting with accompanying dilatation of the ascending aorta (more than 45 mm). The mean diameter of the aorta at the level of Valsalva sinuses amounted to 45.6±8.6 mm, with that of the ascending aortic portion equalling 53.4±7.8 mm. The technique of total replacement of the aortic root was used in all cases. When the aneurysm extended to distal portions of the ascending aorta, additionally performed were the following procedures: in 24 patients--reduction aortoplasty, in 6 patients--replacement of the resected aorta with an insert from xenopericardium, and in 2 patients with a vascular graft. The average duration of follow up amounted to 40.1±21.6 months. Ten patients were subjected to repeat operations for autograft dysfunction. There were no reoperations on the ascending portion of the aorta. The regression analysis revealed that predictors of the development of autograft dysfunction were the baseline dilatation of the fibrous ring (FR) of the aortic valve of more than 27 mm (p=0.04) and uncorrected arterial hypertension in the postoperative period (p=0.03). In the group of patients with the FR less than 27 mm there were no cases of allograft dysfunction. The results of the study suggest that the Ross procedure is a safe and effective method in patients with accompanying dilatation of the ascending aorta. Risk factors for autograft dysfunction are dilatation of the FR of the aortic valve exceeding 27 mm and arterial hypertension in the postoperative period.