We studied the incidence of reported tularaemia by year and region and the prevalence of antibodies against Francisella tularensis in the adult general population in Finland. Moreover, we assessed the correlation between vole population cycles and human tularaemia outbreaks. The seroprevalence study made use of serum samples from a nationwide population-based health survey (Health 2000). The samples of 1,045 randomly selected persons, representative for the Finnish population in each region, were screened with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of IgG antibodies against F. tularensis, and positive results were further confirmed by immunoblotting. A serological response to F. tularensis was found in 2% (95% confidence interval: 1.1–3.5) of the population. Incidence and seroprevalence were highest in the same areas, and vole population peaks clearly preceded tularaemia outbreaks one year later.