All 636 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) reported to the Finnish Cancer Registry between 1971 and 1977 inclusive were compared with patients with other forms of cancer (non-AML) from the same registry. We found no increasing trend in the incidence of AML for either sex, but we found some evidence for regional clusters in certain provinces of Finland. A statistically significant higher incidence was found for men than women in the age group of 50 to 80 years. Classification according to occupation at the time of diagnosis revealed no statistically significant differences between the leukemia cases and the patients with other forms of cancer, but forestry work was more common among the men with AML, and both health care and food industry work were more common among the women with AML. Classification for exposure to chemicals, solvents, or drugs did not yield any statistical differences. The results were inconclusive with regard to the possible role of occupational factors in the etiology of acute myeloid leukemia.