Three recent studies suggest that Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is more prevalent among Canadian Native children than non-Native children. The evidence does not appear to be conclusive. However, the Canadian research that is reviewed is important in defining areas which require further investigation. Efforts at research and intervention should be directed towards defining and modifying personal and social risk factors. Our review of current research on FAS and Native peoples suggests that it is important to consider pragmatic questions which can best contribute to the goal of preventing possible alcohol effects on the fetus.