In summary, the history of hematology/oncology in Canada is a varied one. Beginning in 1945 in hematology, it has gradually expanded to include oncology. The growth of this specialty has provided a high standard of medical care and free services to afflicted children and their families. A substantial amount of basic and clinical research is carried out in this field. A great deal of work remains to be done in Canada, as elsewhere, if the needs of all patients are to be met and the diseases afflicting them are to be adequately studied.