Analysis of the situation in the Russian Federation indicates that despite a small downward tendency, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain a leading cause of death among the population. Epidemiology studies of major CVD risk factors detected their high prevalence in several cities of the Republic despite noticeable geographic differences. The claim that prevention of CVD should be started from childhood remains still declarative and needs further large comprehensive studies. The accomplished research prevention programmes turned out to be feasible at community level and allowed one to develop organizational forms of their realization. To bring these projects into everyday life is a challenge as it involves many social problems.