Young adults are at particular risk for Chlamydia trachomatis infection. To determine whether there is a high rate of asymptomatic ocular chlamydial infection in this population, 131 eyes from 72 patients aged 18 to 30 years with no symptoms of conjunctivitis were tested for C. trachomatis by means of McCoy cell culture and a direct enzyme immunoassay. In addition, 51 of the patients underwent serologic testing to detect systemic chlamydial disease. Ocular chlamydial infection was not found in any of the patients, including the 26 with a positive result of serologic testing. We conclude that routine screening of young adults for ocular chlamydial infection would be of no benefit in detecting systemic chlamydial infection and its sequelae.