In Canada, advance directives have been developed to ensure individual's decisions about health care are known in the event of mental incapacity. This randomized control trial examined the proportion of chronically ill elders receiving Victorian Order of Nurses (VON) services in the home who would complete an advance directive, factors associated with directive completion, treatment choices, and satisfaction with care. The participants consisted of 163 elders with a chronic illness residing within the Hamilton-Wentworth and Haldimand-Norfolk regions in South Central Ontario. Seventy percent of the experimental group completed the directive. Younger patients (p = 0.01) and patients with particular nurses (p = 0.04) were more likely to complete a directive. Psychosocial variables such as mood, depression, and uncertainty in illness did not influence directive completion. Satisfaction with involvement in health care decisions was not changed by this intervention (p = 0.576).