In 1986 a large number of farms in the Chernobyl-affected area in the county of Västernorrland in northern Sweden were investigated for radiocaesium transfer to grass and cereal grain. The soil surface layer (0-5 cm) in 1986 and the crop products in 1986-1996 were analysed. The aim was to study the impact of soil and crop rotation on sensitivity of 137Cs transfer in a short and long term perspective. In the fallout year 1986 the transfer to grass was usually much higher than to cereal grain. In this year the transfer to grass was usually much higher in the first cut rather than the second cut. The reduction in transfer with year was large but variable with site and with crop sequence. Ploughing was effective in decreasing the transfer of 137Cs to crops. On arable sites in 1986 the transfer to cereal straw was larger at late stem elongation (LSE) than at the maturing stage. Unexpectedly, there was no clear relationship between transfer of 137Cs to the crops and any of the soil characteristics. In 1986 the transfer of 131I to grass and cereals was also investigated on some of the farms. The results are compared with the transfer of 137Cs, 2 months after the Chernobyl fallout.