Smoking is responsible for the highest number of avoidable illnesses and deaths in Canada. Cigarette smoking declined considerably in the adult population between 1965 and 1986, but what has happened over the past decade? Quebec and Canadian public surveys were used to compare types of cigarette use in Quebec and Canada between 1985 and 1994, as well as to compare them by sex. In recent years, the prevalence of smoking has increased among Quebec men only. Differences between Quebec and Canada can be seen in the evolution of the quit rate and the prevalence of smokers. There does not appear to be any indication that differences in cigarette smoking between Quebec and Canada are being eradicated. In Quebec, the evolution of this habit differs according to sex, which indicates that certain factors affect men and women differently. The public survey data make it possible to follow trends in the medium and long term, whereas it is difficult to accurately track the evolution of cigarette smoking from one year to the next, given the small size of the samples in each region and the slow evolution of behaviour.