Over an interval of approximately six months beginning in October 1993, most haemophilia A patients in Canada were switched from a plasma-derived intermediate-purity factor VIII concentrate (i.p. VIII) to a recombinant factor VIII (rVIII). In order to determine the consequence of this change in therapy on progression of HIV infection, we gathered surveillance data on clinical status and CD4 and CD8 cell counts in those patients who were HIV seropositive at the time of switching concentrates. Data were recorded at the time of switchover, annually for 2 years thereafter, and retrospectively at a point 1 year prior to the switch. CD4 cells fell significantly over the study period. Multiple direct comparisons revealed that this decline was restricted to the time intervals which included the final year in which patients received intermediate-purity factor VIII concentrate (i.p. VIII). In the 2 year interval in which rVIII was used exclusively, there was a nonsignificant fall in CD4 cells. Changes in CD4 cells did not correlate with the intensity of exposure to either i.p.VIII or rVIII. CD8 cells did not fall significantly over the study period. There was no obvious reduction in the incidence of death or clinical progression over the 2 years in which rVIII was used. However, we are hopeful that the stabilizing trend in CD4 cell counts which followed the introduction of rVIII will be predictive of corresponding clinical stabilization over the coming years.