The purpose of this inventory was to determine what oncology nurses perceived to be the challenges and priorities in pain assessment and management in Canada. It was recognised that there are a variety of practices in Canada, and if we are to establish an educational framework, there is a need to know what some of the issues are and what assessment tools are being used. Sixty-six survey questionnaires were sent to centres with an oncology or palliative care focus. Thirty-one surveys were returned with a great deal of information. The findings of this descriptive inventory of cancer pain assessment and management hold several key implications for future directions of the CANO Pain Initiative. The findings provide further support for ongoing efforts to educate and inform health professionals about the nature of cancer pain and associated assessment and management issues. A number of other issues have been identified with this survey which continues to support the efforts of the CANO Pain Initiative in developing educational modules, comprehensive care plans and practical ways to document pain interventions.