The Breastfeeding Promotion Steering Committee of Manitoba conducted the cross-sectional Provincial Infant Feeding Study in 1996 to examine: correlation between breastfeeding policies and actual practices in Manitoba hospitals; compliance with Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) criteria; and associations between hospital practices and two-week breastfeeding duration. Three separate surveys obtained information from: administrators concerning hospital policy; nursing staff concerning hospital practices; and all women giving birth in a five-week period, concerning breastfeeding rates and maternal perceptions of hospital practices. The results highlighted the need for policy and practice changes to comply with BFHI criteria. 92% initiated breastfeeding, and 84% were breastfeeding at two weeks postpartum. Independent predictors of weaning included: in-hospital supplementation (adjusted RR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.02-4.36, p = 0.04); temporarily interrupting breastfeeding while in hospital (adjusted RR = 4.9, 95% CI 2.7-8.9, p = 0.0001); no previous breastfeeding experience (adjusted RR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.4, p = 0.002); and Grade 12 or less maternal education.