Dietary intake of vitamin D in premenopausal, healthy vegans was insufficient to maintain concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone within normal ranges during the winter in Finland.
To study vitamin D status and bone metabolism of premenopausal vegetarians and omnivores during a 1-year period.
Longitudinal, observational study. Bone mineral density was measured, blood samples from fasting subjects were obtained, and 24-hour urinary samples were collected in February 1994, August 1994, and January 1995. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] and intact parathyroid hormone (S-iPTH) concentrations were measured and intestinal calcium absorption was estimated. Dietary intakes of vitamin D and calcium were calculated.
Six vegans, 6 lactovegetarians, and 16 omnivores living in Helsinki, Finland.
Student-Newman-Keuls test; unbalanced, repeated-measures multiple analysis of variance; analysis of covariance; Pearson correlation test; and linear regression analysis.
Dietary intake of vitamin D was significantly lower in vegans (P