A new analysis of lung cancer mortality in a cohort of male Mayak workers who started their employment in the plutonium and reprocessing plants between 1948 and 1958 has been carried out in terms of a relative risk model. The follow-up has been extended until 1999, moreover a new dosimetry system (DOSES2000) has been established. Particular emphasis has been given to a discrimination of the effects of external gamma-exposure and internal alpha-exposure due to incorporated plutonium. This study has also utilized and incorporated the information from a cohort of Mayak reactor workers, who were exposed only externally to gamma-rays. The influence of smoking as the main confounding factor for lung cancer has been studied. The baseline lung cancer mortality rate was not taken from national statistics but was derived from the cohort itself. The estimated excess relative risk for the plutonium alpha-rays was 0.23/Sv (95%CI: 0.16-0.31). The resulting risk coefficient for external gamma-ray exposure was very low with a statistically insignificant estimate of 0.058/Sv (95%CI: -0.072-0.20). The inferred relative risk for smokers was 16.5 (95%CI: 12.6-20.5).