Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels at the higher end of the reference range have been associated with increased risk for the future development of prostate cancer. We determined whether high serum IGF-I levels are associated with precancerous lesions of the prostate. We conducted a case-control study to determine whether high serum IGF-I levels were associated with the presence of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) among patients who presented for prostate biopsy because of an abnormal serum prostate-specific antigen level or digital rectal exam. We measured serum IGF-I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) prior to prostate biopsy and compared them between 103 men with HGPIN (cases) and 205 men with normal prostate histology (controls). The mean IGF-I level in patients with HGPIN (130.2 ng/mL) was significantly higher compared with controls (118.8 ng/mL, P = 0.01). The mean IGFBP-3 level in patients with HGPIN (2,393.9 ng/mL) was also higher compared with controls (2,276.0 ng/mL, P = 0.06). After adjusting for age, prostate-specific antigen, digital rectal examination, and ethnic background, the odds ratio for a HGPIN diagnosis among men in the highest relative to the lowest quartile of serum IGF-I level was 1.94 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-3.7; P = 0.04). The potential association between a high serum IGF-I level and the presence of HGPIN may represent an important clue to understanding the basis for the relationship between IGF-I physiology and prostate cancer risk. Larger studies will be required to confirm this relationship.