Better understanding of compliance with BZD taper is warranted. Compliance with a taper program and perceived self-efficacy (SE) in being able to comply with hypnotic reduction goals was monitored weekly in 52 older adults (mean age: 63.0 years) with chronic insomnia (average duration: 21.9 years) who underwent a 10-week physician-supervised medication tapering. One group received cognitive- behavior therapy for insomnia during discontinuation, whereas the other did not. Compliant patients showed higher SE ratings at Weeks 6, 8, 9, and 10. Medication-free patients at the end of the treatment also reported higher mean SE ratings at those 4 weeks. Differences remained significant when withdrawal symptoms and sleep efficiency were controlled for. These results have important clinical implications because SE may indicate key time points when patients are experiencing more difficulty during discontinuation.