The aim of this study was to determine whether pedophiles have a different gender identity profile compared with non-sexual offenders. Participants were 87 male adult subjects, divided into three groups: (a) 27 pedophiles who abused male victims, (b) 30 pedophiles who abused female victims, and (c) 30 non-sexual offenders. The gender identity factor was measured with the Mf scale of the MMPI and the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). Results indicated no significant inter-group differences in terms of gender identity. However, the order of the three groups regarding scores on the Bem-Masculinity and the Mf scale was as predicted. Conceptual and empirical elements related to gender identity are addressed in order to shed light on potential disturbances in the gender identity of pedophiles.