Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) gives rise to renal tubular dysfunction at low cumulative doses of Cd. A possible role of Cd in influencing the occurrence of diseases, e.g., bone, reproductive and cancer in the general population groups environmentally exposed to Cd has been reported from Japan, Belgium, Sweden and China. Authorities have to pay attention to this fact and to act in order to prevent serious outcomes and personal suffering in the population groups at risk. A general approach in setting recommended health based limits and to regulate the occurrence of a substance existing in food stuff is to keep low levels -better to be on the safer side than on the risk side. In the case of cadmium it should be most clear that since cadmium has a very long biological half-life of 20 years in humans, increased cadmium exposure due to human activities can never be accepted. In cases where cadmium exposure can not be avoided the approach should be to limit and decrease exposure. Presently FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives and Food has a PTWI (provisional tolerable weekly intake) value for adult persons of 7 microg/kg body weight for Cd (WHO 2003) a value corresponding to 1 microg/kg body weight for each day of a week. For children and pregnant or lactating women daily intakes should not exceed 1 microg/kg body weight.