Genetic and epidemiological studies suggest an association between gestational diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes. Both are polygenic multifactorial disorders characterised by beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Our aim was to investigate whether common genetic variants that have previously been associated with type 2 diabetes or related phenotypes would also confer risk for gestational diabetes mellitus.
In 1,881 unrelated pregnant Scandinavian women (649 women with gestational diabetes mellitus, 1,232 non-diabetic control subjects) we genotyped the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2 rs7903146), adiponectin (ADIPOQ +276G > T), peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor, gamma 2 (PPARG Pro12Ala), PPARG-coactivator, 1 alpha (PPARGC1A Gly482Ser), forkhead box C2 (FOXC2 -512C > T) and beta3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3 Trp64Arg) polymorphisms using TaqMan allelic discrimination assay or RFLP.
The CC, CT and TT genotype frequencies of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 variant differed significantly between women with gestational diabetes mellitus and control women (46.3, 43.6 and 10.1% vs 58.5, 35.3 and 6.2%, p = 3.7 x 10(-6), corrected p value [Pc] for multiple testing Pc = 2.2 x 10(-5)). The T-allele was associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (odds ratio 1.49 [95% CI 1.28-1.75], p = 4.9 x 10(-7) [Pc = 2.8 x 10(-6)]). Compared with wild-type CC-genotype carriers, heterozygous (CT-genotype) and homozygous (TT-genotype) carriers had a 1.6-fold (95% CI 1.26-1.93, p = 3.7 x 10(-5) [Pc = 0.0002]) and a 2.1-fold (95% CI 1.41-2.99, p = 0.0001 [Pc = 0.0008]) increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, respectively. The other polymorphisms studied were not significantly associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (ADIPOQ +276G > T: 1.17 [1.01-1.36], p = 0.039 [Pc = 0.23]; PPARG Pro12Ala: 1.06 [0.87-1.29], p = 0.53; PPARGC1A Gly482Ser: 0.96 [0.83-1.10], p = 0.54; FOXC2 -512C > T: 1.01 [0.87-1.16], p = 0.94; and ADRB3 Trp64Arg: 1.22 [0.95-1.56], p = 0.12).
The TCF7L2 rs7903146 variant is associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in Scandinavian women.