The article deals with the analysis of population mortality in Tverskya oblast, a typical region of the Central Federal Okrug. The presented data reveals the increase of mortality related to all major causes in rural areas and the growth of losses due to population premature mortality. The results of the expertise of lethality in hospitals of Tver are presented. The factors impacting the level of hospital lethality conditioned by particular causes of death are determined. Particularly, the expertise technique was applied to assess the management of applied treatment, the causes led to death, the possibility to prevent the lethal outcome. The findings can be largely applied by the public health control boards and health institutions in various Russian Federation subjects in developing target programs to decrease hospital lethality (lethality induced by particular causes of death included) and taking into account territorial characteristics of resources supply and functioning of heath care system of particular region.