This study is an exploration of engagement in outpatient medical care, medication utilization, and barriers to treatment utilization among 24 predominantly low-income, ethnic minority adults who were admitted to an urban hospital for HIV-related illnesses. A semi-structured interview was administered during the sample's hospital stay to explore patterns of service use and identify barriers to care. The majority of the sample was connected to an outpatient provider and satisfied with the care they received; however, most missed treatment appointments and skipped medication dosages. Health and treatment-related barriers, competing demands, and co-occurring mental health symptoms and illicit substance use were identified as barriers to care. Multiple obstacles indigenous to the individual, their treatment, and the environment prevented consistent treatment use among an economically disadvantaged ethnic minority sample: Implications and future directions in engaging vulnerable populations into health care for HIV are discussed.