The aim of this study was to compare mean glandular dose (MGD) in all full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and screen film mammography (SFM) systems used in a national mammography screening program. MGD from 31 screening units (7 FFDM and 24 SFM), based on an average of 50 women at each screening unit, representing 12 X-ray models (6 FFDM and 6 SFM) from five different manufacturers were calculated. The MGD was significantly lower for FFDM compared with SFM (craniocaudal): 1.19 versus 1.27 mGy, respectively, mediolateral oblique: 1.33 versus 1.45 mGy, respectively), but not all of the FFDM units provided lower doses than the SFM units. Comparing FFDMs, the photon counting scanning-slit technology provides significantly lower MGDs than direct and indirect conversion digital technology. The choice of target/filter combination influences the MGD, and has to be optimised with regard to breast thickness.