The aim was to analyze oral health-related perceptions, attitudes, and behavior in relation to oral hygiene conditions among 19-yr-old Swedish subjects. A random sample of 506 individuals was clinically examined regarding oral hygiene conditions and provided questionnaire-based information on oral health-related perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors. Higher scores of plaque and gingivitis were significantly related to the following perceptions: (i) a less favorable oral health situation, (ii) a lower satisfaction with the esthetic appearance of the teeth, (iii) more frequent gingival bleeding during toothbrushing, (iv) less favorable self-care of the teeth, (v) a lower possibility to impact on own oral health, (vi) a lower importance of cleaning the teeth, and (vii) a lower importance of good oral health conditions. More favorable oral hygiene conditions and more positive perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors towards oral health were found among female subjects than among male subjects. In conclusion, adolescents with high scores of plaque and gingivitis had less positive perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors towards oral health than those with more favorable oral hygiene conditions.