The adoption of the law of the Russian Federation "On the sanitary-epidemiological welfare of population" called for the creation of a tool "measurement" of the specified condition. This tool was the socio-hygienic monitoring (SHM)--a complex system of long-term monitoring changes in the state of health of the population and the surrounding environment. Goal, objectives and the technology of SHM have been formulated in the decisions of the Government of the Russian Federation No426 of 1 June 2000 and 3385 from 26.04.2005. Methodology of SHM provides for the forecasting and management of health of the population on the basis of the establishment of cause-and-effect relations in the system of "environment-health" and making managerial decisions, proceeding from the priority of primary prevention and the establishment of priority in the conduct of recreational activities at designated areas. Currently, the country has established a system of SHM designed to operate at the federal (Russian Federation), regional (republic, kray, oblast, okrug, the mega-cities), local (city, region) level with a vertical management structure. Some experience of SHM was gained and in the hygiene of children and adolescents. On the basis of this experience purpose is to identify opportunities of SHM to solve the priority (as required by the methodology) and other own problems of hygiene of children and adolescents, to give the characteristic used in SHM criteria for the evaluation of the health of students and the status of the school environment and offer a more informative, in our opinion, the criteria.