The state of health of child population is a constant care of ophthalmologists of the Amur region. Over the last few years the level of childhood disability due to ophthalmic pathology has decreased from 1.83 per ten thousand (1999) to 1.14 per ten thousand (2011) and, according to our prognosis, will continue to decrease down to 0.82 per ten thousand by 2014. The level of childhood disability in urban and rural areas was 1.17 per ten thousand and 1.06 per ten thousand correspondingly. Female to male proportion in primary disabled children in the Amur region in 2002-2004 was 43% to 57%. For many years the leading cause of childhood disability due to pathology of the organ of vision has been amblyopia (28%). Prevention and reduction of primary disability of children is one of the main activities of pediatric ophthalmologists in Russia.