Treatment of chronic renal failure by dialysis and renal transplantation has been developed over the last 20 years in Norway. 17 local nephrological units with dialysis departments cooperate with one transplantation center in Oslo. The number of new patients starting renal replacement therapy has increased only slightly during the last five years. The mean number of new patients in the period was 52 per million inhabitants per year. The proportion of elderly patients accepted for renal replacement therapy was high (39% above 60 years of age) and approximately 15% of the patients had diabetic nephropathy. Due to an active transplantation policy, the proportion of patients alive on dialysis is low (18%), compared with 82% alive with a functioning graft. The number of patients on dialysis has declined slightly the last four years. The proportion of patients on chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is low (13%), and the number of patients on home hemodialysis has declined in the last five years. Predialytic transplantation has been performed in 18% of the patients starting renal replacement therapy during the last five years. Due to a high transplantation rate and a large number of predialytic transplantations, it has not been necessary to increase the capacity for dialysis in the last five years.