Heavy metals in toys and low-cost jewelry: critical review of U.S. and Canadian legislations and recommendations for testing.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125883
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2012 Apr 17;46(8):4265-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-17-2012
Author
Mert Guney
Gerald J Zagury
Author Affiliation
Department of Civil, Geological and Mining Engineering, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3A7 Canada.
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2012 Apr 17;46(8):4265-74
Date
Apr-17-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Availability
Canada
Consumer Product Safety - legislation & jurisprudence
Environmental Monitoring - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Jewelry - analysis
Metals, Heavy - analysis
Play and Playthings
Social Control, Formal
United States
Abstract
High metal contamination in toys and low-cost jewelry is a widespread problem, and metals can become bioavailable, especially via oral pathway due to common child-specific behaviors of mouthing and pica. In this review, the U.S., Canadian, and European Union (EU) legislations on metals in toys and jewelry are evaluated. A literature review on content, bioavailability, children's exposure, and testing of metals in toys and low-cost jewelry is provided. A list of priority metals is presented, and research needs and legislative recommendations are addressed. While the U.S. and Canadian legislations put emphasis on lead exposure prevention, other toxic elements like arsenic and cadmium in toy materials are not regulated except in paint and coatings. The EU legislation is more comprehensive in terms of contaminants and scientific approach. Current toy testing procedures do not fully consider metal bioavailability. In vitro bioaccessibility tests developed and validated for toys and corresponding metal bioaccessibility data in different toy matrices are lacking. The U.S. and Canadian legislations should put more emphasis on metal bioavailability and on other metals in addition to lead. A two-step management approach with mandatory testing of toys for total metal concentrations followed by voluntary bioaccessibility testing could be implemented.
PubMed ID
22443256 View in PubMed
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