Recent data on the involvement of miRNA and circulating tumor-derived DNA in regulation of tumorigenesis showed a great prospect for these molecules as a novel class of therapeutic targets and gave a new start for the study of enzymes cleaving nucleic acids as potential antitumor and antimetastatic agents. In the present paper using two murine tumor models with pulmonary or liver metastases we studied the antimetastatic potential of RNase A and DNase I and performed a search for possible molecular targets of the enzymes. Herein, we show for the first time that daily administration of ultralow doses of RNase A (0.5-50µg/kg) and DNase I (0.02-2.3mg/kg) inhibits the development of metastasis to 60-90% and RNase A exerts 30% retardation of tumor growth. Remarkably, the increase in RNase A dose from 50µg/kg to 10mg/kg leads to a disappearance of antitumor and antimetastatic effects. Simultaneous treatment of tumor-bearing animals with RNase A and DNase I leads to an additive effect and results in almost total absence of metastases. The use of RNase A as an adjuvant in conjunction with conventional cytostatic cyclophosphamide results in a reliable enhancement of antitumor and antimetastatic effect of the therapy compared with the use of these agents individually. The search for possible molecular mechanism of antimetastatic effect of nucleases showed that daily administration of the enzymes reduced the pathologically increased level of extracellular nucleic acids and increased nuclease activity of the blood plasma of tumor-bearing mice back to the level of healthy animals. Thus, we unequivocally show that the proposed protocol of treatment of tumor-bearing animals with RNase A and DNase I has a general systemic and immunomodulatory effect, leads to a drastic suppression of metastasis development, and in perspective may become an effective component of intensive complex therapy of cancer.