BACKGROUND Two decades after the introduction of Swedish legislation that allows children born as a result of gamete donation access to identifying information about the donor, a nationwide multicentre study on the psychosocial consequences of this legislation for recipients and donors of gametes was initiated in 2005. The aim of the present study was to investigate recipient couples' attitudes and behaviour regarding disclosure to offspring and others, attitudes towards genetic parenthood and perceptions of information regarding parenthood after donation. METHODS The present study is part of the prospective longitudinal 'Swedish study on gamete donation', including all fertility clinics performing donation treatment in Sweden. A consecutive cohort of 152 heterosexual recipient couples of donated oocytes (72% response) and 127 heterosexual recipient couples of donated sperm (81% response) accepted participation in the study. In connection with the donation treatment, male and female participants individually completed two questionnaires with study-specific instruments concerning disclosure, genetic parenthood and informational aspects. RESULTS About 90% of participants (in couples receiving anonymous donated gametes) supported disclosure and openness to the offspring concerning his/her genetic origin. Only 6% of all participants had not told other people about their donation treatment. Between 26 and 40% of participants wanted additional information/support about parenthood following donation treatment. CONCLUSIONS Two decades after the Swedish legislation of identifiable gamete donors, recipient couples of anonymously donated sperm and oocytes are relatively open about their treatment and support disclosure to offspring. Recipient couples may benefit from more information and support regarding parenthood after gamete donation. Further studies are required to follow-up on the future parents' actual disclosure behaviour directed to offspring.