This study describes a recent cluster of 30 patients (median age 52 years) with serious group A streptococcal (GAS) infections in Uppsala County, Sweden, from December 2006 to May 2007. Patients hospitalized with a severe GAS infection, i.e. cases with either invasive GAS (iGAS) disease or patients with a positive non-sterile site culture/rapid antigen test for GAS and clinically considered as having a critical disease, were included in the study. Common clinical presentations were skin and soft tissue infections (53%) and pneumonia (17%). Eight patients (27%) were diagnosed with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. In 40% of the cases no relevant underlying disease was reported. Among the 16 patients with soft tissue infections, the upper chest, neck or upper arm area was frequently affected and the infection was associated with severe pain. Among the 20 collected isolates, the T1/emm1 type dominated (80%). The majority (86%) of 7 analysed acute sera lacked neutralizing activity against superantigens produced by the patients' own infecting isolate. The study underscores the association between T1/emm1 and outbreaks of serious GAS infections. This highlights the importance of surveillance for prompt identification of more aggressive isolates in the community, thereby increasing awareness among healthcare professionals of these life-threatening infections.