ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the chronicity of sleep problems in children with chronic illness, and potential predictors of sleep problems. METHODS: Using data from a longitudinal total population study in Norway, The Bergen Child Study, data on sleep problems, chronic illness and potential confounders were assessed at ages 79 and 1113. RESULTS: 295 of 4025 (7.3%) children had a chronic illness, and the prevalence of chronic sleep problems was significantly higher in this group compared to children without chronic illness (6.8% versus 3.6%). Sleep problems at the first wave increased the risk of sleep problems at the second wave, also when adjusting for potential confounders (odds-ratio = 5.41). Hyperactivity and emotional problems were also independent risk factors for later sleep problems. CONCLUSION: These findings call for increased awareness and development of treatment strategies of sleep problems in children with chronic illness.