Improved laws, enhanced enforcement, and public awareness brought about by citizens' concern, during the 1980s led to dramatic declines in drinking and driving in the industrialized world. The declines included about 50% in Great Britain, 28% in The Netherlands, 28% in Canada, 32% in Australia, 39% in France, 37% in Germany, and 26% in the United States. Some of these declines may be due in part to lifestyle changes, demographic shifts, and economic conditions. In most countries the declines reversed in the early 1990s and drinking and driving began to increase. By the middle of that decade the increases stabilized and the rates of drinking and driving again began to decline. These decreases were much less dramatic than those in the 1980s. Approaching the end of the 1990s and early in the new century, the record has been mixed. Some countries (France and Germany (until 2002)) continued to reduce drinking and driving while in other countries (Canada, the Netherlands, Great Britain, and the United States), there was stagnation and in some cases small increases or even large increase as was the case in Sweden. Complacency and attention to other issues in recent years have been difficult to overcome in some countries. Harmonization of traffic safety laws in the European Union has strengthened laws in some countries but threatens existing strong policies in others. It may be that the major gains have already been made and that additional progress will require a much greater level of scientific knowledge, use of new and emerging technologies, and political and social commitment to put in place proven countermeasures.