INTRODUCTION: Listeria monocytogenes rarely causes meningitis, but when it does the course can be severe and case fatality rates high. The article describes clinical and laboratory findings as well as treatment and outcome among patients treated for listerial meningitis at the Department of Infectious diseases, Rigshospitalet from 1983-2006. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patient records were reviewed for all adults with a diagnosis of listerial meningitis. RESULTS: A total of 40 patients with a discharge diagnosis of listerial meningitis were identified; records for 36 of these were available. 61% were men and 72% were older than 50 years. 64% had underlying, predisposing illnesses or took immunosuppressant medication. At presentation, patients had fever, neck stiffness, headache and/or change in mental status. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell count was raised in all patients, but the number and differential count of leukocytes in the CSF varied. L monocytogenes was present in blood and/or CSF from all patients. Treatment records were available for 35 patients, all of whom received ampicillin. Four patients died; they all had underlying diseases and three were older than 50 years. CONCLUSION: The present study confirms the findings of other studies showing that listerial meningitis is more common in patients with underlying conditions, immunosuppression or age above 50. The case fatality rate is lower than that found in other reports, which could be due to the selection of patients. Listeriosis is an important differential diagnosis in predisposed individuals.