The main objective of this study was to investigate associations between serum concentrations of several blood variables related to metabolic and immunological status around calving, and udder health measured as milk somatic cell counts (SCC), Box-Cox transformed to bcSCC, at first test-milking in 287 primiparous cows in 20 Swedish dairy herds. Possible systematic effects of breed and age at calving on blood profiles were also investigated. Ordinary linear regression models, with robust standard errors and adjusting for clustering within herds, were used to investigate associations between blood variables and bcSCC. Hierarchical linear regression models, with herd as random factor, were used to investigate systematic effects on blood variables. The results showed that greater concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and glucose before calving were associated with lesser bcSCC at first test-milking, whereas greater concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) before calving and greater delta NEFA (describing the difference in concentrations before and after calving) were associated with greater bcSCC at first test-milking. In addition, greater alpha-tocopherol concentrations in the period -5 to +5 d relative to calving were associated with lesser bcSCC at first test-milking, whereas greater concentrations of collectin of 43 kDa (CL-43) postpartum (1 to 21 d after calving) were associated with greater bcSCC. Postpartum concentrations of conglutinin and haptoglobin were also associated with bcSCC, but not independently of each other. Moreover, significant breed differences were observed for insulin, urea nitrogen, conglutinin, cholesterol, NEFA, and CL-43, the latter 3 as an interaction with period. Overall, cows of the Swedish Red breed had greater concentrations of insulin, cholesterol, urea nitrogen, and conglutinin, and lesser concentrations of NEFA and CL-43 than cows of the Swedish Holstein breed. Age at calving as main effect was significantly associated with BHBA, glucose, insulin, NEFA, urea nitrogen, and conglutinin. Heifers calving at >27 mo of age had greater BHBA and NEFA values, and lesser glucose, insulin, and urea nitrogen values compared with heifers calving at 25 mo. The results show that there are several associations among metabolites, immunological variables, and udder health of primiparous cows, but also that these variables vary between breeds and between cows of different age at first calving.