AIM: Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is a well-established, non-surgical procedure in the emergency treatment of massive hemoptysis. This study aims to evaluate the immediate and long-term prognosis of BAE for the management of massive hemoptysis in our center. METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients (mean age: 59+/-14 years) with massive hemoptysis, underwent BAE with microspheres (Embospheres BioSphere Medical SA, Paris, France), polyvinyl alcohol particles (PVA, Ivalon, Cathmed Science; Paris, France) or/and steel coils (Cook, Denmark) after thoracic aortography and diagnostic selective and superselective catheterization of bronchial arteries and systemic collateral vessels in the bleeding lung area. Hemoptysis was due to bronchiectasis (55%), non-operable aspergillomas (15%), active tuberculosis (15%), malignancy (10%) and cystic fibrosis (5%). Mean duration of follow-up was 29+/-18 months. The recurrent-free time was calculated with Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: Immediate control of bleeding was achieved in all patients. Recurrent cases of hemoptysis were observed in 6/20 patients (30%) within 3 years and 4 of them (66.6%) occurred early in the first 3 months. Recurrent-free time was 9 months (standard error: 4) (95% confidence interval: 0-17). Repeated interventions were required in all early recurrences, due to either recanalization of the occluded arteries or non-bronchial systemic artery supply. Combined use of PVA and coils was proved effective in these cases. No serious complications were observed. CONCLUSION: BAE is an effective and safe intervention in cases of massive hemoptysis. However, recurrences are common and long-term follow-up is considered important with a view to perform repeated interventions with combination of embolic materials.